Incidence and Prevalence of Top 5 Eye Diseases and Treatments Available


anatomy of eye

Contact PrimedeQ on +917019759765 or +918971223957 or write to us at [email protected] to buy or sell ophthalmology equipment.

Eye diseases are very common these days and most prevalent due to pollution and other environmental factors. But people seem to care less about them. Imagine a world without your power of vision. What do you see? Darkness Only!! 

Let us understand the core components of the eye, discuss the common eye diseases occurring in current times and the treatments available to counter them.

Anatomy of the eye

The Eye is a complex organ and a very crucial one. The main components of the eye include:

Cornea: Clear tissue in the front of the eye.

Iris: Coloured part of the eye surrounding the pupil.

Pupil: Dark hole in the iris that regulates the amount of light going into the eye.

Lens: Small clear disk inside the eye that focusses light rays onto the retina.

Retina: Layer which lines the back of the eye, senses light and creates electrical impulses which then sends sensory signals to the brain travelling through the optic nerve.

Optic Nerve: Connector of the eye to the brain and carries electrical impulses generated by the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. 

Vitreous: Clear but Jelly-like substance filling the middle of the eye.

Eye diseases and their treatment


The blind population in India is estimated to rise to 15 million by the year 2020. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in India while age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and uncorrected refraction errors are equally responsible for blindness.  

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration 

Age-Related Macular Degeneration or AMD is a disturbance which affects the centre of the retina. The center of the retina, also known as Macula is the part responsible for acute vision used for performing activities which require sharp vision. Age, smoking, diet, obesity or high BP are all risk factors for AMD. There are two types of macular degeneration.

Dry Macular Degeneration affects the patient when yellow deposits also known as Drusen accumulate under the macula. It then disrupts vision cells leading to the gradual loss of vision. Dry Macular Degeneration is the most common form of AMD. 

Wet Macular Degeneration: New blood vessels start growing in the areas of the macula. This causes rapid damage to the macula which results in loss of vision fast. This is the less common type of AMD but results in severe vision loss.

Treatment: People affected with Dry AMD can continue with their normal lifestyle since peripheral vision remains unaffected with the help of low-vision optical devices. Wet AMD is treatable using injections or specific medications or Laser surgery which seals the leaking blood vessels. If left untreated Wet AMD can result in about 90% of one’s vision loss. 


  • Cataracts


Cataracts which affects people 60 plus or more is the clouding of the lens of the eye. As the lens becomes opaque the vision gets affected. The risk factors for cataracts are increasing age, chronic diseases, pollution or excessive usage of steroids. 

Treatment: Cataracts cannot be prevented but it can be removed surgically.  Initially vision can be improved using forms of vision correction however in the later stage surgery is an equally successful mandate. The surgery involves removal of the natural lens and replacing it with an Intra Ocular Lens. 


  • Glaucoma


Glaucoma occurs when a build-up of fluid in the eye causes pressure and damages the optic nerve. The silent disease of the eye, it gives out no symptoms and the damage it leads to is irreversible. Thus, it is very essential to get checked by an eye doctor for ocular hypertension which puts you to risk of glaucoma.

Treatment: Eye drops are prescribed to decrease eye pressure by draining out excess fluids from the eye. Also, Glaucoma surgery can improve the flow of the fluids in the eye relieving pressure off the optic nerve. The eye doctor will use a highly focused laser beam to modify existing drainage route or to create an alternate hole in the Iris. How so ever effective the surgery is it cannot reverse the damage already done. Eye checkups are a must to prevent Glaucoma.


  • Childhood Squint (Strabismus)


Squint is an eye condition in children mostly where the eyes do not look in the same direction but one eye looks forward to focussing on an object while the other eye turns towards a different direction. Each eye looks at different objects and sends different images to the brain. Caused due to refractive errors, Squint can also be a result of prematurity, low birth weight or can be inherited from families. 

Treatment: The treatment aims to develop normal vision before ages 7 or 8. Eye exercises, glasses, surgery, Botox injections, or patching (Covering the good eye) are all treatment options for Squint. Treatments are not generic and only suggested post scrutiny from the doctor.

  1. Refractive Errors

Untreated refractive errors are the leading cause of blindness in our country. The problem has exacerbated due to increased screen time and negligence. Our eyes are not meant for such close work which we subject it to for extended hours. As a result, we have difficulty seeing objects at a distance. Owing to ignorance we ignore the refractive errors which could be easily corrected with prescription glasses.  

Treatment: Vision changes or strained eyes can be addressed by rest and eye exercises and cutting off-screen time. Your doctor will recommend glasses or contact lenses. Do wear them. Once your eye power gets stabilised you can even go for LASIK surgery if you are a fit candidate for it.  

Take care of your eyes. They help us see the world and you can gift them after your gone and continue to live through the eyes of someone else.


PrimedeQ can help you set up an eye hospital in a limited budget. We have a wide range of used ophthalmology equipment as well as new equipment to set up the eye hospital.

Disclaimer : All views and information in this site and the blogs is based on secondary information available in public domain and is provided "as is", with no guarantee of completeness, accuracy, timeliness or of the results obtained from the use of this information. PrimedeQ is not responsible for any errors or omissions, or for the results obtained from the use of this information. Readers are encouraged to independently verify all required information.