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Equipment needed to set-up a medical diagnostic centre / facility

A typical diagnostic centre/ set-up is usually includes Clinical Lab and Imaging equipment. A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on clinical specimens (such blood, urine, stool, semen, bone-marrow and several other body fluids)  in order to obtain information about the health of a patient for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Equipment for imaging include X-Ray, CR System, Ultrasound, CT, MRI, Bone-densitometer, mammograph etc. and a basic clinical laboratory includes equipment like ABG machine / Blood gas analyzer, Cell counter / Hematology analyser, Bio-chemistry analyser, Electrolyte Analyzer, Urine analyzer, ESR Analyzer etc.

A typical basic diagnostic typically requires at least the following equipment:

LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

ABG machine/Blood gas analyser.

Blood gas analysis which is also known as arterial blood gas analysis, is a test in which the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide as well as the acidity (pH) of the blood is measured. It may also measure electrolytes and metabolites.

It is used to check acid-base balance for individuals having heart or kidney failure, severe sleep problem, uncontrolled diabetes or a drug overdose. This test is done in cases of lungs problem or  severe breathing as COPD , asthama etc.

Arterial blood gas test results may show if lungs are removing enough carbon dioxide, kidneys are working properly or lungs are getting enough oxygen.

Brands available are Alere EPOC, Radiometer ABL 80 FLEX, Roche Cobas B 121, i-Sens, Convergent and others.

 

Biochemistry Analyzer

An automated Biochemistry analyser is a medical laboratory equipment which is designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples with minimal human assistance. The blood and other fluid which are measured are used for diagnosis of disease. The automation of this test has reduced the time of analysis from days to hours.

Brands available are Biosystem, Elitech, Robonik, Abbott, Horiba, Thermo Scientific, Diasys, Hycel, Rayro, Biobase and Others.

Centrifuge

A laboratory centrifuge is a motor driven equipment which spins liquid samples at high speed. A centrifuge is used for the separation of fluids, gas or liquid, based on density.  Separation is achieved by spinning a vessel containing material at high speed; the centrifugal force pushes heavier materials to the outside of the vessel.

Brands available are Remi, Thermo fisher, Lab-tech and others.

 

Electrolyte analyser

Electrolyte analysers are used to measure electrolyte levels in the human body and to detect metabolic imbalances and measure renal and cardiac function. Electrolyte analysers are used for blood plasma, serum, or urine samples. Electrolytes are measured using ion selective electrodes and colorimetric and photometric techniques.

Brands available are Diamond, J.S. Medicina, Hycel, Diestro, Sensa Core, Erba, i-sens I-smart 30 Pro and others.

 

Hematology Analyser / Cell counter

Hematology analysers are automated systems that count leucocytes, red cells and platelets in the blood, and also checks the level of hemoglobin and hematocrit in the blood. A complete blood count is usually the priliminary test requested by physicians to assess patient health. The CBC can be used to detect a wide range of pathological states including anemia, infection, hemophilia, blood-clotting disorders, and leukemia, as well as to monitor the patient who is undergoing chemotherapy.

Brands available are Abbott, Horiba Yumizen H 500, Pentra MSCRP, Biosystems, Hycel, Rayto, Maccura, Mindray and others.

 

Urine analyzer

A urine analyser is an equipment which is used in the medical laboratory for performing automatic urine testing. Urine analyser analyses bilirubin, protein, glucose and red blood cells. There are many models which contain urine strip readers, a type of reflectance photometer that can process several hundred strips per hour.

Urine analysis may also be the part of the overall health check-up routine. Urine analysis helps to find the illness if any in the early stages which includes kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes etc. Urine analysis is also done to confirm the pregnancy. If a patient arrives with the symptoms of a kidney or urinary tract problem, urine analysis is done to find out the problem.

 

There are three different ways in which urine can be analysed. First, is visual exam in which the urine is analysed by its colour and its clarity. Second, microscopic exam is done to detect the small bacteria which can’t be seen through naked eyes, microscope can find RBC, WBC, crystals which can possibly be a kidney stone. Third part is dipstick test in which a small plastic strip with chemical is used to dip in the urine, which detect on the change of the colour of the strip. This is used to measure the pH level, acidity or urinary tract infection.

 

Brands available are Siemens, Roche Urisys 1100, Cobas 6500, Robonik Uricha, Transasia Erba Lauram, Hycel HY-URI 600, Rato RT-150, Biobase UA-200,  Contec BC-401, BC-400 and others.

 

Incubator

An incubator is an equipment in a laboratory which is used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures. The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide (CO2) and content of oxygen in the atmosphere inside.

The simplest incubators are the boxes which are insulated with a heater which is adjustable which temperature goes up to 140 to 150 °F. Laboratory incubators gives controlled, contamination-free environment for safe and reliable work with cell and tissue cultures by specific conditions such as temperature, humidity, and CO2. Laboratory incubators are used for storage and growth of bacterial cultures.

Brands available are Apollo, Avilab, Rotek and others.

 

Elisa Reader/Microplate reader

Elisa readers, also known as microplate readers or microplate photometers, are equipment which are used to detect biological, chemical or physical events of samples in microtiter plates. ELISA stands for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In short, it is an antibody test or a test for immune response to things attacking the body such as virus, bacteria and allergens. The test is done in an ELISA plate, also known as a 96-well plate or microplate. The ELISA reader reads the plate.

Brands available are Thermofisher scientific Wellwash 1 * 8 and 1* 12, Biotek instruments TS washer, Titertek Berthold Zoom HT, iD 3090, Edutek ETA-34 and others

Immunoassay analyzer

An immunoassay analyzer is used in hospital set up and laboratories to perform biochemical tests automatically. Immunoassay analyser can perform various tests which includes cancer markers, diagnosing infectious diseases, cardiac analysis, therapeutic drug monitoring, and allergy testing. Random sampling and continuous access sampling are two ways in which an immunoassay analyzer can process a sample. The samples undergo several kinds of immunoassays tests for microparticle enzyme, ion capture, fluorescence polarization, and chemiluminescence. While choosing an immunoassay analyzer, it is very necessary to consider the types of reagents needed for various types of tests.

Brands available are Biomeriux Mini Vidas, Beckmen coulter Access 2, Diasorin Liaison, Boditech Ichroma and others.

 

Hot air oven

Hot air ovens are electrical equipment which sterilize using dry heat. Generally, they can be operated from 50 to 300 °C, to control the temperature using a thermostat. Hot air oven have double walled insulation that keeps the heat in and conserves energy, the inner layer being a poor conductor and outer layer being metallic. There is also an air filled space in between to aid insulation. It has an air circulating fan which uniformly distribute the heat. These are fitted with the adjustable wire mesh plated trays and it has switch for on and off and indicators as well for temperature and holding time.

Brands available are Bionic Scientific, Remi,Innolab India, Labline, Oracle and others.

IMAGING EQUIPMENT

 

X-ray Machine

An X-ray machine is any machine that involves X-rays. It consists of an X-ray generator and an X-ray detector. X rays are electromagnetic radiation that penetrates structures within the body and creates images of these structures on film or a fluorescent screen. These images are called x-rays. In medical field, X-ray generators are used by radiographers to get x-ray images of the internal structures e.g., bones of a patient.

X ray machine can be fixed x-ray or mobile / portable x ray. Fixed X-ray machines are available at different techinic as 100mA, 300mA, 500mA, 800mA. These machine are available at high frequency as well. Portable X-ray machine are available at different ranges of techinic as 20mA, 60mA and100mA.

Brands available are Agfa CR 3.5 0x , Allengers 100 mA x-ray, HF Mars 15 to 80 fixed x-ray, Mars series 3.5/6/6R, BPL, GE HF Advance 300 mA, Siemens Heliophos D, Fuji film FCR Profect, Konika Regius 190 CR system, Regius 110 CR system, Shimadzu, Skanray Skanmobile, Stallion and others.

 

CR system

Computed Radiography ( or CR ) is the use of a Phosphor Imaging Plate to create a digital image. If the computed radiography is used, the analogue system takes X-ray exposures as usual but uses a specific cassette for CR in place of a traditional film cassette. Computed radiography cassettes uses photo-stimulated luminescence screens to capture the X-ray image, instead of old type of X-ray film. After the exposure the computed radiography cassette is run through a CR reader in which the image is scanned into a digital format. Computer radiography is replacement from a conventional X-Ray to a digital one and it also offers huge advantages.

Computer radiography system stores images in computer system. It’s advantage is that it enables digital imaging along traditional work flow of X- ray film, time saving and efficient.

Brands available are Carestream Classic, Konica Regius, Agfa 30 X Digitizer, Trimax, Fuji FCR Profect , Fuji FCR Prima , Fujifilm Capsula and others

 

Ultrasound

Ultrasound imaging is a technology that allows sound waves to be transmitted to a computer screen as images.

Ultrasound helps the doctor to examine the patient of various health issues. It also helps the doctor to confirm the pregnancy and also to check the growth of the baby.

The patients who are suspecting heart issues can be detected through Ultrasound machine. The patients who is already suffering from heart problems can check the pumping of the heart and how strong it is. Ultrasound can also assist doctor in detecting the valve function of the heart.

Ultrasound is the most famous method of imaging which can be done without radiations. Ultrasound can be used during pregnancies by gynaecologist and obstetrician to know the baby position and its heartbeat and other condition.

A cardiac ultrasound, also known as ECG, uses standard ultrasound techniques to image two-dimensional slices of the heart. There are many portable ECG machines available, including those that do echo and 3D/4D imaging.

The portable ultrasound machine is easy for doctors to use. Hence many physicians find portable ultrasound machine easy to carry in different part of the hospital as it is light weight.

 

Brands available are Aloka Prosound alfa 6 LT, Logiq P3 PRO, BPL E-Cube 7, GE Logiq C-5, Konika, Medison, Mindray DC-7, Philips HD15, Siemens Acuson X-300, Skanray Surabi, Sonoscape, Toshiba Nemio XG and others.

 

Bone Densitometer

Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or DEXA, uses a small ionizing radiation to get the pictures of the inside of the body which is usually the lower spine and hips to measure the loss of bone. Generally Bone density test is done to diagnose osteoporosis. It is also used to Assess bone density, fracture risk, metabolic health or Sarcopenia

Brands available are GE Lunar DPX NT, Hitachi, Swissray, Medonica, Bmtech and others.

Mammography Machine

 

Mammography is specialized medical imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. A mammography exam, called a mammogram, aids in the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women.

Mammography which is also known mastography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the human breast for diagnosis purposes. The main aim of mammography is to detect breast cancer to the earliest.

Brands available are Siemens Mammomat Select, Philips Microdose SI, GE Senographe crystal, Amico, Hologic, Planmed, BMI, Allengers Mammo Venus and others.

1 thought on “Equipment needed to set-up a medical diagnostic centre / facility

  1. When it comes to types of mammogram, there is usually discussion around screening and diagnostic mammogram . However, the other point to be noted is whether it is analog (film-based) or digital mammogram. Many studies have shown that film-screen and digital mammography are equally accurate in screening for breast cancer. As per a 2005 study of nearly 50,000 women, found that digital mammography was a better screening tool than film-screen mammography only for women who either:

    are under age 50
    have very dense or extremely dense breast tissue
    are still menstruating or are perimenopausal (starting menopause), but have had a period within the previous 12 months

    This discussion is relevant since many women find pressing of breasts in mammography painful and most find it at least uncomfortable. If you fall into any one of the above three categories, especially if you may have dense breast tissue, you may want to go for digital mammography.

    The advantages of digital mammography versus film-screen are that (1) digital images can be manipulated for better views and they can be stored more easily, and (2) digital mammograms deliver about three-fourths of the radiation that film-screen mammograms do even though analog mammograms already deliver a safe and very small amount of radiation. The disadvantages of digital mammography are that it is more expensive and very few hospitals and diagnostic centres have digital mammography.

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